The 2-dimensional structure and time evolution of the ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events
(FTEs) have been described mainly using data from the Halley HF PACE radar.
PACE images show that FTE can be at least 100 km in latitude and 1000 km in longitude extent, and the
plasma velocity in the centre of the event often exceed 2 km/s.
Recent high time resolution studies of FTEs show that the first ionospheric signature occurs at the open/closed field line boundary, which lies 100-200 km equatorward of the most equatorward edge of cusp precipitation. The rise time of the velocity transients associated with the onset of these events is ~100 s whereas the fall time is about 10 s.
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